Traumatic brain injury (TBI) typically occurs when an external force traumatically injures the brain. TBI can be classified based on severity, mechanism (closed or penetrating head injury), or other features (e.g., occurring in a specific location or over a widespread area).
TBI is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, especially in children and young adults. Causes of TBI include falls, car and truck accidents and violence.
Brain trauma can be caused by a direct impact or by acceleration alone. In addition to the damage caused at the moment of injury, brain trauma causes secondary injury, a variety of events that take place in the minutes and days following the injury. These processes, which include alterations in cerebral blood flow and the pressure within the skull, contribute substantially to the damage from the initial injury.
TBI can cause a host of physical, cognitive, social, emotional, and behavioral effects, and outcome can range from complete recovery to permanent disability or death. Depending on the injury, treatment required may include medications, surgery, physical therapy, speech therapy, recreation therapy, and occupational for rehabilitation.
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